Magnificent Moths

Black-Waved Flannel Moth
The fuzzy, stout body is typical of moths. This black-waved flannel moth (Lagoa crispata) is uncommon in New York. Photo: M. Schlesinger, NYNHP

It’s National Moth Week! So let’s learn a little more about them.

Moth or butterfly?

Moths and butterflies are members of the order Lepidoptera (Greek for scale and wing). Most butterflies have club-shaped antennae – a thin stem with a ball at the end – whereas moths usually (but not always) have feathery antennae like the luna moth above. Moths often have fuzzy, short bodies compared to the more slender, smoother body of butterflies.

Luna Moth
The Luna moth (Actias luna) is one of our largest moths. Photo: K. Smith, NYNHP

Are all moths small and brown?

Many moths are small and brown, tan or white. But many are much fancier; in fact you may have mistaken some colorful ones for butterflies. Sometimes the colors are hidden while the moth is at rest, but revealed when in flight, like the tiger moth. The silk moths are spectacular in size and color – such as the Luna moth above.

How many different kinds of moths are in NY State?

There are over 1,000 moth species in the state. A single State Park can harbor dozens to hundreds of different species of moths. Larger parks and those with rare habitats are great examples of places that support a diversity of different species of moths. To date, scientists have identified about 90 species in Watkins Glen and Taughannock State Parks, over 300 species in Minnewaska State Park Preserve, and nearly 500 species of moths each at Hither Hills and Napeague State Parks!

Sphinx Moth
The sphinx moth – or hawk moth – can be mistaken for a hummingbird. Look for them hovering over flowers. There are many species in this group of moths. Photo by T. Weldy, NYNHP

Where and how do you find moths?

Most moths fly at night. The easiest place to see moths is at a porch light or around the lights of campground buildings. For better viewing hang a sheet or light colored cloth up with a light next to it. The moths will land on the sheet (see below) so you can get a close up look without even touching them. Other moths prefer daytime or can be seen resting during the day.

Tim McCabe
Moth expert Tim McCabe from the NY State Museum examines moths that were attracted to the light during a survey in Taconic State Park. Photo by George Heitzman

Why are those moths in boxes?

A lot of moths are difficult to identify. So scientists collect and preserve specimens in order to look at them closely to identify them. Collections are also important as a permanent record of what species were found at a site. Each specimen is labeled with location, date, and species name. Then the specimens are placed in ‘safe storage’ in a museum such as the New York State Museum or a university collection where they can be used for other research or study.

Are there rare moths in State Parks?

Yes!  For example, four rare moth species have been found in Minnewaska State Park Preserve and over 30 rare moth species have been documented in Napeague and Hither Hills State Parks on Long Island. Some have fun names like fawn brown dart (Euxoa pleuritica), pink star moth (Derrima stellate), chocolate renia (Renia nemorali) and black-bordered lemon moth (Marimatha nigrofimbria). Most areas of the state have not even been surveyed for moths, so there is much more to learn. Currently, over 100 species of moths have been identified as rare in the state. See the NYNHP Rare animal list  for the listing of New York’s rare moths.

Quiz: What moth does this caterpillar become?

Woolly bear
The woolly bear caterpillar is the young phase of what moth? Answer at bottom of page. Photo by M. Schlesinger, NYNHP

For More Information:

Fun for all ages Moth Week  

Peterson First Guide to Caterpillars by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1983 (includes moths and butterflies).

A field guide to the moths of eastern North America by C. V. Covell, 2005.

Peterson first guide to butterflies and moths: a simplified guide to the common butterflies and moths of North America. P.A. Opler, 1994.

Butterflies and Moths of North America

New York Natural Heritage Program, Animal Guides

Butterflies and Moths, BugGuide

State Parks Moth Week Events

Quiz answer: The woolly bear caterpillar (Pyrrharctia isabella) becomes the Isabella tiger moth (Pyrrharctia isabella). Moths are one of the few groups that have different names for different life stages of the same animal. This is one reason why scientific names are important; from the common names we might think this caterpillar and moth were not related.

Isabella Tiger Moth
Isabella tiger moth, Fyn Kynd, 2015, accessed from BugGuide, http://bugguide.net/node/view/1162577

Post by Julie Lundgren, NY Natural Heritage Program

New York State Invasive Species Awareness Week 2016

This week marks New York Invasive Species Awareness week!

July 10th – 16th, 2016 the State of New York is celebrating their third annual Invasive Species Awareness Week (ISAW). The purpose of this week is to bring awareness to the public regarding the harmful effects of invasive species around our state. Invasive species are non-native species that inhabit a new environment, causing harm to that new environment. Not all non-native species are considered invasive. In order to classify a species as invasive, it can cause ecological, social, human health, and or economic damage. Invasive species often spread unintentionally through human activity. The trade of goods around the world is one of the primary sources of invasive species transfer. Cargo ships for instance can carry aquatic invasive species in their ballast tanks or insects in their shipping containers. Once established in these new environments invasive species can spread quickly because these ecosystems often have no natural predators or control. The presence of these hitchhikers is one of the leading threats to our native species and ecosystems. By out-competing, preying upon native species or carrying disease, invasive species can be detrimental to native species and the biodiversity of natural habitats.

Invasive species come from near and far and affect all types of habitats found throughout New York State. Since many of our commercial, agricultural, and recreational activities are dependent on a healthy native ecosystem the presence of invasive species can impact all people and the natural world. Aquatic invasive species such as hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), water chestnut (Trapa natans) or zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have inhabited many of New York’s water ways. On land, species such as Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica), can overcrowd native environments.

Boat Stewards
Over the years, NYS Parks has organized invasive species pulls to help lower the effects of invasive species in our park lands. Pictured above are State Parks Boat Stewards pulling Water Chestnut from Selkirk Shores State Park. Photo by Meg Phillips OPRHP

How you can help!

Boaters/Anglers Wash and dry your boat properly. Be sure to remove all plant matter from boat, ballast, prop, trailer and all equipment. Dispose debris correctly. Use aquatic invasive species disposal station if available.

Campers/Hikers/Bikers Check clothing, boots, pets, and camping gear for seeds, plant matter and insects. Clean gear and dispose of debris properly. Use local firewood.

Gardeners Plant only native plants. Educate yourself and others about the importance of using native species. There are many native look-alikes that are just as beautiful.

Whether you are a boater, fisherman, hiker, gardener or simply a concerned citizen, it is important to educate yourself and others on the different species found in your home state. You can make a difference in stopping the spread of invasives! Here you can find information on invasive species found in the State of New York.

Many State Parks have events during New York Invasive Species Awareness Week to involve the public in preventing the spread of invasive species.

Learn more by contacting your local PRISM! Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management for more information on Invasive Species.

Help Stop the Spread!

Southern Pine Beetle in New York

Southern pine beetle has killed thousands of pine trees since it was first found in New York State in 2014. This bark beetle is native to the southern United States, but arrived in New York after working its way northward for many years. Although the beetles are small (2-4 mm; less than 1/8th inch), they are able to kill trees in 2 to 4 months by attacking in large numbers. Once beneath the bark, the thousands of beetles create S-shaped tunnels as they feed on the inner bark, which soon cuts off the nutrients the tree needs to survive and grow.

In New York, pitch pine trees have been attacked by southern pine beetle more than any other species. Pitch pine trees are often a part of unique, globally and statewide rare ecosystems such as Pitch Pine-Scrub Oak Barrens, Pitch pine-oak heath woodlands, Pitch pine-heath barrens, Pitch pine-oak-heath rocky summits, Dwarf pine plains, and Dwarf pine ridges. In New York, southern pine beetle has been found in trees across Long Island and in traps as far north as Minnewaska State Park Preserve in the Shawangunk Ridge. Large forested and unique areas such as the Long Island Central Pine Barrens Preserve and the Shawangunk Ridge are of the highest priority to protect. Maps of the pitch pine communities of statewide significance created by NY Natural Heritage Program provide further guidance on priorities. Although there are no known means to eradicate southern pine beetle, there are measures to reduce the beetles’ impacts and save some of the susceptible pines.

Southern Pine Beetle Map, Tom Schmeelk, NYS DEC
Map of confirmed southern pine beetle infestations from ground surveys and traps as well as suspected infestations from aerial surveys. Photo credit: Scott McDonnell, NYS DEC

To help fight against southern pine beetle, the NY State Department of Environmental Conservation’s (DEC) Forest Health team has conducted trapping, aerial surveys, and ground surveys to monitor for the beetle and cut infested trees (suppression) to manage the beetle. Currently, suppression efforts are focused in the Central Pine Barrens of Long Island. In some cases, pines are replanted along trails or in areas where impacts have been high. The beetles do not attack small, young trees, so the hope is that some trees will survive and produce seed to maintain pine in these ecosystems.

In areas that the beetles were captured in traps, but were not found in trees, such as at Bear Mountain and Minnewaska State Parks, the focus continues to be on early detection and surveying for infested trees. DEC conducts aerial surveys over Bear Mountain and Minnewaska State Parks to map out areas potentially infested with the beetle. These aerial surveys are quickly followed up by ground surveys by DEC, State Parks, NYNJ Trail Conference, and others to verify if the trees are infested. So far, no ground surveys have found infested trees in either of these parks.

Efforts at Connetquot River State Park Preserve on Long Island, one of the hardest-hit areas, are focused on removal of dead trees. State Parks, with help from the Excelsior Conservation Corps has been cutting down dead trees killed by southern pine beetle along trails to keep the trails safe and open to visitors. State Parks is also chipping up some of these dead trees to help speed up decomposition.

DEC, Parks and Trails New York, and State Parks co-sponsored tree planting as part of I Love My Park Day in Connetquot River State Park Preserve on May 7th, 2016. DEC’s Tree for Tributaries trained volunteers to plant the 600 pitch pine that were donated from New York State’s Saratoga Tree Nursery. The pitch pine trees were raised from seed originating from Long Island and will help maintain the local pitch pine genetics that is adapted to the conditions of Long Island. Through hazard tree mitigation, chipping, suppression, and re-planting pine trees in areas attacked by southern pine beetle such as Connetquot, hopes are that forests will remain safe for public use and maintain their pitch pine components in the wake of southern pine beetle.

Minnewaskafire_May2008_Lundgren27
Wildfires are nature’s way of thinning the pitch pine forests and woodlands and keeping these ecosystems healthy. Without fire the pines get too dense and are more susceptible to pests like the southern pine beetle. Mechanical thinning (cutting) can mimic some of the ecological processes of fire to benefit the communities of rare species and reduce SPB infestations. Photo credit: J. Lundgren, NYNHP.

For more information see NYS DEC’s website on Southern Pine Beetle.

For more information on The Southern Pine Beetle Response efforts, see The Southern Pine Beetle Management Plan.

For more information on pitch pine communities see the NYNHP Conservation Guides.  A few of these types are listed below:

Pitch Pine-Oak-Heath Woodland

Pitch Pine-Oak Forest

Pitch Pine-Scrub Oak Barrens  (globally rare)

Pitch Pine-Oak-Heath Rocky Summit

For other pitch pine community types or to see what occurs in your county, go to guide.nynhp.org and type “pitch pine” into the advanced search box and check off the community category box.

Post by Molly Hassett, NY State Department of Environmental Conservation and Julie Lundgren, NY Natural Heritage Program

Celebrate Your Freedom In a State Park!

Fourth of July weekend is a great weekend to spend in a State Park or Historic Site.  You can build sand castles at Hither Hills State Park to camp on the banks of Lake Erie at Evangola State Park, fish in the St. Lawrence River at Wellesley Island State Park, listen to a reading of the Declaration of Independence at Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site, take a hike, enjoy the forest and more.  Find out all that State Parks has to offer this weekend at nysparks.com.

Thacher Indian Laddler Trail near Falls
Take a hike on the Indian Ladder Trail at Thacher State Park, Photo by OPRHP
Stony Point-3002
Hear the cannons firing at Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site, photo by OPRHP
Spider Fishing
Try your hand at fishing at Wellesley Island State Park, photo by OPRHP
schuyler
Play one of George Washington’s favorite games at Schuyler Mansion State Historic Site, photo by Schuyler Mansion State Historic Site
Lorenzo
Tour the gardens at Lorenzo State Historic House, photo by OPRHP
John Jay kids in pen with Rabbits and Chickens
Check out the Farm Market at John Jay Homestead State Historic Site, photo by OPRHP
Gorge
Enjoy a cool gorge in the Finger Lakes Parks or at Whetstone Gulf State Park – photo by OPRHP
John Williams
Build a sand castle at Hither Hills State Park, photo by John Williams, OPRHP
Glimmerglass State Park summer 2008
Picnic by the lake, Glimmerglass State Park, photo by OPRHP
Boy Salamander
Get to know the residents, salamander program at Allegany State Park, photo by Tom LeBlanc OPRHP
Rockland Lake Golf DSC_9783
Try your hand at golfing at Rockland Lake State Park, photo by OPRHP
Grafton Bike event_2267 copy
Go biking at Grafton Lakes State Park, photo by OPRHP
Cherry Plain Camping_AAT0238 web
Camp at Cherry Plain State Park, photo by OPRHP
Finger Lakes Boating
Go boating in the Finger Lakes, Allan H. Treman State Park, photo by OPRHP
Trees
Marvel at old-growth trees in Allegany State Park along the Conservation or Eastwood Meadows Trails – photo of old-growth ash tree in Allegany State Park by J Lundgren, NYNHP
Fireworks_PRT0033
See the fireworks at many parks across the state, photo by OPRHP
Sunset, Golden Hill
Or enjoy a quiet evening sunset, Golden Hill State Park, photo by OPRHP

Plants for Our Pollinators

New York State Parks is abuzz with excitement for pollinators.  From June 20-26, we celebrate both National Pollinator Week and New York State Pollinator Awareness Week.  Our local bees, butterflies, moths, birds and other pollinators are to thank for most of the food we eat, as well as for many of the trees and flowers we enjoy every day.  As these animals go from flower to flower to drink nectar, they accidentally carry sticky pollen from the anthers to the stigma, the male and female parts of flowers.  This fertilizes the eggs, which grow into seeds and fruits that we enjoy.

One of the ways you can show appreciation for these fantastic pollinators is to get out to natural areas in State Parks and enjoy the native flora.  You can also explore native plant gardens and learn more about using native plant species in your own backyard to attract pollinators.  Last year we paid homage to a few of our favorite New York pollinators.  This year, let’s have a closer look at some of the plants and the pollinators that visit them.

Just as pollinators come in all shapes and sizes, so too do the native plants that they enjoy.  Different plants attract different types of pollinators.  Look for all kinds of flowers in the woods, wetlands, meadows, gardens or orchards and you are apt to see some pollinators at work.  Below are some of the native pollinators and flora found in State Parks, with photos from the NY Natural Heritage Program.   NYNHP works in partnership with State Parks (OPRHP) to assess and conduct inventories of natural areas in state parks and helps to protect habitats that support common and rare species alike, including these important pollinators.

Cutleaf toothwort
Pollinators emerge as soon as there is nectar available for them to feed on. This native wildflower, cutleaf toothwort (Cardamine concatenata), was blooming the first week of April. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
Pink Lady Slipper
Pink lady’s slippers (Cypripedium acaule) bloom in June and are pollinated by various kinds of bees. Photo by T. Howard, NYNHP.
wild geranium
A Juvenal’s duskywing (Erynnis juvenalis) feeds on wild geranium (Geranium maculatum), a common native wildflower of woods and openings. Photo by K. Perkins, NYNHP.
Azure Butterfly
The more showy spring azure butterfly emerges early in the spring and can be seen flitting about sunny trails and open areas. Photo by M. Adamovic for NYNHP.
Goldenrod
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are one of the most effective pollinators. You can see how the pollen sticks to its fuzzy body as this bee feeds on the nectar of this native goldenrod. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
Ragwort
A Pearl crescent butterfly (Phyciodes tharos) feeds on ragwort (Packera aurea) that grows along river shores and wet areas. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
Bedstraw
Moths help pollinate too. Though most moths prefer night, this one is a daytime moth, seen here feeding on bedstraw (this one is non-native, but we have some native bedstraws too) and moving the pollen around in the process. Look for this native moth, the Virginia Ctenucha (Ctenucha virginica) in meadows with flowers from May to July. The caterpillars feed on grasses, so unmown meadows can provide everything this moth species needs year-round. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
NE Aster
In late summer and fall, the bright colors of asters and goldenrods are especially attractive to bees and many other insects. The native New England Aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) blooms from August to September. This one is being visited by the Common Eastern Bumble Bee (Bombus impatiens). There are many species of bumblebees, but this one is by far the most common in the state, so the one you are most likely to see. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP

Whether you are a hiker, gardener, farmer, or food-lover you can enjoy and support our local pollinators!  Maintaining natural areas, meadows or gardens with a variety of plants can help to sustain all the life stages of a wide range of insects from bees to butterflies.

If you are interested in creating a backyard oasis for native pollinators, look for plants that are native to your area of the state and, if possible, grown near where you live.  Consider planting different types of flowers; gardens with an array of flowers blooming at different times provide food for a variety of pollinators throughout the season.  Look for white, yellow or blue flowers to attract bees.  Red tubular flowers attract hummingbirds (bees don’t even see red).  Butterflies prefer bright flowers, particularly reds, oranges, and purple (like fall asters).  Moths are attracted to white, purple, or pink flowers with strong, sweet scents, especially those emitting a scent at night.  See resources below on pollinators and native plants in your area.

State Parks is celebrating pollinators at these events across the state:

Clay Pit Ponds State Park – Time Tuesdays, June 21 @ 10am

Learn about our native pollinators by making crafts, playing games, and socializing with other toddlers! Parent or care giver is required to stay. Ages 1-3 (flexible).  Please call (718) 605-3970 ext 201 for more information.

Saratoga Spa State Park – Butterfly Walk Friday, June 24 @2:00pm

Did you know restoring a habitat is like building a neighborhood?  Come enjoy a light hike at the Karner Blue site and learn what butterflies live in the same neighborhood as the Karner Blue butterfly.  Please wear hats and sunscreen.  You may want to bring binoculars or a magnifying glass to see butterflies up close.  This program is appropriate for ages 7 and up.  Registration is required.  Please call 518-584-2000 ext. 122. This program is free.

Thacher Nature Center – Honeybees Are Buzzin’, June 25 @ 2pm

Summertime brings flowers and a hive packed with activity! Come and learn all about honeybees as you view the colony in our indoor observation hive. See the busy workers, the specialized drones and the ever-important queen bee in action! Learn how to dance like a bee, and view the world from a bee’s perspective. Afterwards, take a walk to observe our honeybees at work in the gardens. Please register by calling 518-872-0800.

Letchworth State Park – Butterfly Beauties, June 26 @ 2pm

Study the beauty and composition of hundreds of dried butterfly specimens representing most of the world’s butterfly families. Dozens of local and New York species, as well as those found in the Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, are specially noted. Butterfly structure and local natural history will be featured in two new butterfly videos. This is an excellent primer for the Butterfly Walk on July 9th. (Look for details in the upcoming summer issue of The Genesee Naturalist.) All workshops meet in the Conference Room in the Visitor Center and Regional Administration Building located in Letchworth State Park.  Please call (585) 493-3680 for more information.

Ganondagan State Historic Site – Planting for Ethnobotany Workshop Saturday, August 6, 2016 @9:00am-11:00am

Participants will help plant native plants in the Green Plants Trail and the Pollinator Grassland at Ganondagan.  Ages 8 and up. Registration Required.  Please call (585) 924-5848 for more information.

For more about pollinators and native plantings:

 General Information

Confronting the Plight of  Pollinators

Gardening and pollinator information

— New York’s famous apple orchards would be naught without our beloved pollinators 

New York State Parks Native Plant Policy

 New York State Flora

— Have a plant to identify? Try GoBotany

Native plants for pollinators, by region

Please note, some of the plants listed in this resource are native to the ecoregion but not to NY state. Please check the NY Flora Atlas to confirm which are native to New York before choosing your planting list.

NY Flora Atlas – list of plants known in NY and which are native or not

Pollinator Identification Tools

— Have a bug to identify? Try BugGuide

— Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation Northeast Region Pollinator Plants

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Post by Erin Lennon, OPRHP and Julie Lundgren, NYNHP

The New York State Parks Blog

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